Web Development Guide: Programming Languages, Frameworks and Courses

Jan Schäfer

Until a few years ago, users' search interest on Google was primarily on technologies like HTML and frameworks like WordPress. Now, users primarily want to learn about platforms like TikTok and new formats like podcasts. What hasn't changed is the fact that technologies like Web Development remain essential to meet these interests. This will not change in the future. People know the high value of applications, so they are present in almost all areas of our lives. This is true even for niches. For example, there are logistics platforms that facilitate the exchange of logistics companies, and online magazines in which small communities can inform themselves about their specialty and exchange ideas.

It's no wonder, then, that by 2031, employment of web developers will increase by 23 percent. This is shown by a current forecast in the USA. In Germany, the forecast is not likely to be much different. Here, too, the number of programmers is growing steadily. However, this will not cover the demand for specialists who are professionals in web development.

In our Web Development Guide, we provide a comprehensive overview of the topic. Among other things, we show all common types of web development, programming languages, libraries and frameworks. And we show where users can find the right web development courses to learn programming.

development user interests google search

Web Development Definition

web development definiton

Web Development involves the creation, design, and implementation of websites and web applications. It involves the use of programming languages such as HTML, CSS, and JavaScript to create interactive and engaging services such as apps.

The main goal of Web Development is to develop user-friendly, responsive and functional websites that work well on different devices and browsers.

This also includes database integration, backend management and ensuring website security.

Programmers use tools and frameworks to make development more efficient and optimize the performance of a website. They work closely with designers and clients to understand and implement the requirements and goals of a website or application.

At the same time, web development is rarely a completed process. Rather, it is a dynamic process that requires constant evolution and adaptation to meet changing needs and technologies.

Web Development vs. Software Engineering

Web Development and Software Engineering are closely related. Web Development is specifically about the development of websites and web applications, while Software Engineering is more general and deals with the development of software in general. Web Development is thus a subfield of Software Engineering and includes the creation of front-end and back-end code, user interface design and database integration. Software Engineering, on the other hand, also includes other aspects such as requirements analysis, software architecture, quality assurance and agile project management.

10 important Types of Web Development

The following types of Web Development refer primarily to the different areas of professions in which Web Developers work. The types are not always distinct, but often overlap:

Web Development Front End

Web development in the front end creates the user interface of a website that users can see and use directly. Languages such as HTML, CSS and JavaScript are used to program the website.

Web Development Back End

Web Development in the back end creates the logic and database connectivity for a website or application.

Full Stack Development

Full stack development describes the combination of front end and back end development to develop both the user interface and the server side of an application.

Desktop Development

Desktop development is the development of applications that run on desktop computers. Programmers often use web development frameworks such as Electron or WPF for this purpose.

Mobile Development

Mobile Development deals with the creation of applications for mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. The programming languages Swift (Apple), Java and Kotlin (Android) are often used for this purpose.

Responsive Web Development

Responsive Web Development creates websites that automatically adapt to different screen sizes and device types.

E-Commerce Development

E-Commerce Development specializes in online store development and integration of payment gateways, shopping cart and order functions.

Security Development

Security Development describes the development of security-relevant functions and protection mechanisms for web applications or other special software.

Embedded Development

Embedded Development describes the programming of software for embedded systems such as IoT devices or microcontrollers.

Game Development

Game Development is the development of video games for various platforms, including programming game logic, graphics and audio.

web development tools

Web Development Tools

Web development tools are basically divided into programming languages and libraries and frameworks:

10 important Programming Languages

There are several hundred programming languages. New requirements in IT constantly bring forth new languages, while older languages disappear again. Currently, these programming languages are the most common:


An easy-to-read and user-friendly language known for its versatility and extensive libraries. Used in areas such as Data Science, web development, and artificial intelligence. Here is a simple code example of Python:

# Welcome message
print("Hello! Welcome to my program.")
# Input prompt
name = input("What is your name? ")
# Output of the personalized greeting message
print("Nice to meet you,", name + "!")
# Calculation of age in years
year_born = int(input("In which year were you born? "))
current_year = 2023
age = current_year - year_of_birth
# Output of the age
print("You are about", age, "years old.")
# Check if age is of age.
if age >= 18:
    print("You are of age.")
    print("You are a minor.")
# Farewell message
print("Thank you for using the program. Goodbye!")


JavaScript is a web development scripting language that runs in browsers. It allows you to interact with HTML elements and create dynamic web pages, as well as develop cross-platform applications.


A widely used language known for its portability and security. Used for Android app development, enterprise applications, and large software systems. This is what a simple Java code looks like:

public class LoopExample {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        // Create an instance of the class
        LoopExample example = new LoopExample();
        // Call a method that contains a loop
    // Method that contains a loop
    public void zahlenAusgeben(int anzahl) {
        for (int i = 1; i <= number; i++) {
            System.out.println("Number: " + i);


C# is a language developed by Microsoft that is used for developing Windows apps, web services, and games. It enables the creation of cross-platform apps for Windows, iOS, and Android.


A powerful language that programmers use to develop system software, games, and high-performance applications. It provides control over hardware resources and is efficient at processing large amounts of data.


A flexible language known for its simple syntax and Ruby on Rails framework. It enables rapid development of web applications and simplifies commonly used tasks.


A language developed by Apple for iOS and macOS development. It provides security and performance, facilitates mobile app development, and is tailored specifically to the needs of Apple devices. This is what Swift looks like in practice:

// Definition of a class for a shopping list element
class ShoppingListElement {
    var name: String
    var quantity: Int
    init(name: String, quantity: Int) {
        self.name = name
        self.quantity = quantity
// Definition of the shopping list as an array of shopping list elements
var shoppinglist: [ShoppingListElement] = []
// Function for adding an element to the shopping list
func elementHinzufuegen(name: String, quantity: Int) {
    let newElement = ShoppingListElement(name: name, quantity: quantity)
    print("The element '\(name)' with the quantity \(quantity) has been added to the shopping list.")
// Function for displaying the shopping list
func listDisplay() {
    if shoppinglist.isEmpty {
        print("The shopping list is empty.")
    } else {
        print("Shopping list:")
        for element in shopping list {
            print("\(element.name) (\(element.quantity))")
// Add elements to the shopping list
elementAdd(name: "Apple", quantity: 5)
elementAdd(name: "Milk", quantity: 2)
elementAdd(name: "Bread", quantity: 1)
// Display the shopping list


A language developed by Google that is known for its efficiency and compilation speed. Software developers use it to design web services, network applications, and cloud-based systems.


A statically typed extension to JavaScript that facilitates the development of large projects. It provides type-based validation and improved tools for developing scalable web applications.


A server-side scripting language created specifically for web development. It allows creating dynamic web pages and interacting with databases. Programmers often use it with the Laravel framework.

10 important Libraries and Frameworks

Libraries and frameworks are tools used in web development to facilitate and accelerate the development of web applications. Libraries are collections of pre-built code that provide specific functionality. Frameworks are more comprehensive structures that provide a framework for developing a web application and often include a set of features and web development tools.

Both libraries and frameworks allow developers to automate repetitive tasks and rely on existing code - instead of having to build everything from scratch. This increases efficiency and leads to more consistent and reliable code. These libraries and frameworks are particularly common at the moment:


A JavaScript library for creating user interfaces. React allows you to create reusable components to develop interactive web applications. Here's what a sample React code looks like:

import React, { useState } from 'react';
function Einkaufsliste() {
  const [artikel, setArtikel] = useState('');
  const [liste, setListe] = useState([]);
  const handleArtikelChange = (event) => {
  const handleHinzufuegen = () => {
    if (artikel.trim() !== '') {
      setListe([...liste, artikel]);
  const handleLoeschen = (index) => {
    const neueListe = [...liste];
    neueListe.splice(index, 1);
  return (
        placeholder="Artikel eingeben"
      <button onClick={handleHinzufuegen}>Hinzufügen</button>
        {liste.map((artikel, index) => (
          <li key={index}>
            <button onClick={() => handleLoeschen(index)}>Löschen</button>
export default Einkaufsliste;


A TypeScript-based framework for building single-page applications. Angular provides a comprehensive platform for developing, running automated tests, and deploying web applications.


A JavaScript framework for creating user interfaces. Vue.js is lightweight and flexible, which simplifies the development of responsive applications.


A minimalist web application framework for Node.js. Express simplifies the creation of web applications and provides a simple way to manage routes, middleware, and requests.


A Python-based web framework that enables fast and efficient development of web applications. Django provides features such as ORM, routing, and authentication. Here is an example of what Django code looks like in practice:

# Step 1: Import Django
from django.shortcuts import render
from django.http import HttpResponse
# Step 2: Create a simple Django view
def index(request):
    return HttpResponse("Hello, world!")
# Step 3: Create a URL routing table
urlpatterns = [
    ('/', index),
# Step 4: Configure the Django application
def main():
    # Further configuration steps can be carried out here, e.g. adding database connections or middleware.
# Step 5: Run the Django application
if __name__ == "__main__":

Ruby on Rails 

A Ruby-based web framework that supports rapid development of web applications using conventional code. Rails provides features such as database access and routing.


A PHP-based web framework for building scalable and secure web applications. Laravel offers elegant syntax, ORM and routing features.


A Python-based web framework for fast and easy web application development. Flask enables the creation of RESTful APIs and provides a variety of extensions for additional functionality.


A popular HTML, CSS, and JavaScript framework for responsive website development. Bootstrap provides pre-built components and grid systems to simplify design and development.


A fast, small, and versatile JavaScript library that simplifies interaction with HTML documents. jQuery allows you to traverse DOM elements, perform animations, and work with events.

Alternatives to classic Web Development

Programming is time-consuming and costly. Smaller or even larger companies that want to get a website, application or digital product up and running as quickly as possible are therefore increasingly turning to alternatives to traditional web development. These include above all no code and low code tools:

Low Code Tools

Low code tools are often web-based software solutions that enable developers to create applications with minimal programming effort. They offer visual, drag-and-drop user interfaces and pre-built modules to speed up development.

Low code tools allow users to quickly prototype and customize features through simple configuration.

They require less coding and technical expertise, allowing less experienced developers to work more efficiently.

No Code Tools

No Code Tools are software platforms or applications that allow people without programming skills to create applications or websites. These web development tools allow users to work visually and intuitively. They offer a variety of functions, such as creating forms, linking databases, or creating workflows.

Web Development in 10 Steps

Programming languages, libraries, frameworks and tools - so much for the theory. What does web development look like in practice? Typically, companies need the following 10 steps before they have a finished website or app. Web development is an iterative process, where steps can be repeated as needed to optimize a website, adjust requirements or add new features:

  1. Requirements analysis

    To begin, companies identify and document the requirements for the website. This includes defining the purpose of the website, the target audience, the desired functions, and other specific requirements.

  2. Design

    In the design process, companies create the look and feel of the website and its user interface. They determine the layout, colors, fonts, and other visual elements. The goal is to design an appealing and user-friendly website.

  3. Front-end development

    he front-end development process involves writing code that is responsible for rendering and interacting with users. HTML, CSS, and JavaScript are used to create the user interface of the website and implement features such as navigation, forms, and animations.

  4. Backend development

    In the backend development process, companies write the code that runs in the background of the website and enables logic and data processing. Here, programming languages such as PHP, Python, Ruby or Java are used to implement server-side processes such as database access, user authentication and business logic.

  5. Database development

    In the next step, companies create the database structure in which the website stores and manages its data. Database management systems such as MySQL, PostgreSQL or MongoDB are used to design tables, relationships and queries to store and retrieve the data efficiently.

  6. Integration

    Now companies connect the frontend, the backend and the database to ensure that the website is fully functional. The communication between the frontend and the backend takes place via APIs (Application Programming Interfaces) that exchange data and information.

  7. Testing

    Companies test the website extensively. This is to ensure that it functions without errors and meets the various requirements. Various testing methods such as functional tests, user tests and performance tests are used to identify and correct errors.

  8. Deployment

    After the website is successfully tested, it is deployed on a web server. This involves uploading the website code, database and all necessary files to the server and configuring them to make the website accessible over the Internet.

  9. Maintenance and updating

    The website requires regular maintenance to ensure that it runs smoothly. This includes fixing bugs, optimizing performance, updating software components, and ensuring compatibility with new technologies and security standards.

  10. Monitoring and analysis

    After deployment, companies need to monitor the website to check its performance and collect data about user interactions. They analyze this data to gain insights into visitor behavior, website performance, and other important metrics. Based on this, they can make optimizations to the website.

web development resources

Web Development Resources

In order to learn web development or to further educate themselves in certain areas of software development, users can primarily turn to web development courses and communities:

Web Development Courses

Users can find countless providers online for a web development course. Some of the renowned platforms include these:


Udemy is an online learning platform that offers a wide range of web development trainings. The courses are created by experienced professionals and cover various topics such as HTML, CSS, JavaScript, frameworks, and more. Udemy courses are usually self-paced. This means: users can learn at their own pace.


Codecademy is known for its interactive approach to learning. The platform offers a variety of web development courses that allow learners to practice coding directly in the browser. Here, the provider has courses for basics in HTML and CSS, as well as more advanced topics such as JavaScript frameworks and databases, among others. Codecademy is particularly suitable for beginners who want to gain hands-on experience.


Coursera is a popular online platform that offers courses from renowned universities and educational institutions from all over the world. In terms of web development, Coursera has a wide range of courses that cover various technologies and concepts. Coursera also offers certificates for completed web development courses.


FreeCodeCamp is a non-profit organization that provides free access to learning materials for web development. Their curriculum is very comprehensive and covers all aspects of web development - including HTML, CSS, JavaScript, databases and API usage. Besides the learning materials, FreeCodeCamp also offers web development projects and assignments to practically apply what you learn and improve your skills.

LinkedIn Learning

LinkedIn Learning is an online learning platform that offers an extensive collection of web development courses. The courses are created by experts and professionals and cover a variety of topics, including HTML, CSS, JavaScript, frameworks, and databases. LinkedIn Learning allows users to complete courses at their own pace. It offers certificates for completed web development courses.


Pluralsight is a platform that offers comprehensive technical training, including a wide range of web development courses. The courses offer content on frontend technologies such as HTML, CSS, JavaScript, as well as backend frameworks such as Node.js and Django, among others. Pluralsight courses are video-based and offer detailed explanations and practical examples.


edX is an online learning platform that offers courses from renowned universities and educational institutions. In terms of web development, users can choose from a variety of courses that cover different aspects of web development - from the basics to more advanced topics. edX courses are usually structured and include lessons, exercises, and sometimes exams.

7 helpful Web Development Communities

Web development communities are particularly suitable for learning about web development

  • current information,
  • Problem solving,
  • new perspectives,
  • Tips and tricks,
  • Links to further resources and
  • Contact with like-minded people

to find. The following communities are particularly popular at the moment and offer a great deal of help:

Stack Overflow

Stack Overflow is a Q&A platform where developers can ask questions about technical problems. The community consists of developers from all over the world who share their knowledge and offer solutions for various programming languages, frameworks and tools. It is a handy resource to solve specific problems and benefit from the experience of other developers.


GitHub is a popular platform where developers can share code, collaborate on projects, and share their work with the public. It offers features like version control, bug tracking, and pull requests that facilitate collaboration.


Dev.to is an online community for developers to publish and discuss articles on various software development topics. The platform offers a wide range of content, including tutorials, opinions and career advice. Developers can share their experiences, get feedback and network with like-minded people.

Reddit r/webdev

The r/webdev subreddit community on Reddit is a place where web developers can discuss, ask questions, share resources, and talk about current trends in web development. It's a great way to stay up to date and exchange ideas with other developers.


CodePen is an online platform where developers can share, experiment, and collaborate on code snippets. It allows developers to run HTML, CSS, and JavaScript code in an editor and see results directly in the browser. CodePen is a comprehensive resource for trying out ideas, finding code snippets, and getting feedback from the community.


SitePoint is a website that provides tutorials, articles and books on various aspects of web development. The content covers topics such as HTML, CSS, JavaScript, backend development, and frameworks.

CSS tricks

CSS-Tricks is a comprehensive collection of tutorials, articles, and resources related to CSS and front-end development. It provides tutorials, tips and tricks, examples, and tools to help developers create responsive and well-designed websites. CSS-Tricks is suitable for both beginners and experienced developers who want to improve their CSS skills.


What is Web Development?

Web Development involves the creation, design and maintenance of websites and web applications. It involves the use of programming languages such as HTML, CSS and JavaScript to develop design and functionality. It also involves the use of backend technologies such as databases and servers. The goal of Web Development is to create appealing and user-friendly websites that meet the needs of users.

What are common web development frameworks?

Common web development frameworks are React, Angular and Vue.js for frontend development and Django, Ruby on Rails and Laravel for backend development. They facilitate the creation of web applications through reusable code and provide features such as routing, database access and user management. These frameworks are widely used by developers due to their efficiency and popularity.

Where can I find User Web Development courses?

Users can find web development courses to learn programming on platforms like Udemy, Coursera, and Codecademy. These offer a variety of courses for beginners and advanced users, covering topics such as HTML, CSS, and JavaScript.

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