text analysis in python title

Text Analysis in Python: From basics to deep learning 

Janina Horn

Data is the new currency with which companies can optimize their business processes and address customers in a more targeted manner. This is why analyzing text data, for example, has a central role to play in decision-making. In this article, you will learn in detail what text analysis in Python looks like and what advantages it offers you.

From basic text pre-processing techniques to advanced machine learning and deep learning approaches, you'll learn how Python tools and libraries can help organizations gain valuable insights from the depths of unstructured text data. 

Text Analysis in Python - Basics

If you want to start with the basics of text analysis in Python, you should carry out the following 2 steps:

  1. Select text analysis library
  2. Select a library

2.1 Choice of text analysis library

Various Python libraries are available for carrying out text analyses in your company, including NLTK (Natural Language Toolkit), spaCy and TextBlob. 

The choice of library depends on the specific requirements of your project. 

Here you will find brief descriptions of the libraries mentioned:

NLTK (Natural Language Toolkit):

  • NLTK is a comprehensive library for natural language processing.
  • It offers a variety of tools for Tokenizationstemming, lemmatization, POS tagging and more.
  • Extensive resources such as dictionaries and corpora are also available.

spaCy:

  • As a modern and efficient library for natural language processing, spaCy provides pre-trained models for tasks such as tokenization, POS tagging and Named Entity Recognition (NER) ready.
  • It is known for its speed and user-friendliness.

TextBlob:

  • TextBlob is based on NLTK and simplifies many of the text analysis tasks.
  • This library is particularly user-friendly and is ideal for beginners.
  • TextBlob offers functions such as sentiment analysis, extraction of noun phrases and more.

2.2 Installing the selected library:

The selected library is installed via the Python package manager pip. Here are examples for the installation of NLTK and spaCy:

  • NLTK:
  pip install nltk
  • spaCy:
  pip install spacy

In addition, it is often necessary to Language models can be downloaded in order to use certain functions. For example:

  • NLTK:
  import nltk
  nltk.download('dot')
  • spaCy:
  python -m spacy download en

To be able to start fully, you must also TextBlob install:

  pip install textblob

After successful installation, you can start using text pre-processing and other advanced text analysis techniques to gain valuable insights from your company's text data.

You can find out how to do this now.

text analysis in python text classification
  1. Text Classification (text preprocessing)

Text preprocessing is a crucial step in text analysis that lays the foundation for accurate results. Here are the core steps of text preprocessing and how they can be implemented in Python:

1.1 Tokenization

Tokenization refers to the process of dividing text into individual words or sentences. This step is fundamental for most text analysis applications. 

This is what tokenization with NLTK can look like, for example:

import nltk
text = "Your text data will be analyzed."
tokens = nltk.word_tokenize(text)
print(tokens)

1.2 Stop word removal

Stop words are common words such as "and", "or" and "but", which are usually not very informative. 

Removing these words can improve the analysis. 

Example of stop word removal with NLTK:

from nltk.corpus import stopwords
nltk.download('stopwords')
stop_words = set(stopwords.words('english'))
filtered_tokens = [word for word in tokens if word.lower() not in stop_words]
print(filtered_tokens)

1.3 Lemmatization

Lemmatization reduces words to their basic form, which makes the analysis more consistent. 

Lemmatization with spaCy looks like this:

import spacy
nlp = spacy.load('en_core_news_sm')
text = "This is an example"
lemmatized_tokens = [token.lemma_ for token in nlp(text)]
print(lemmatized_tokens)
# ["This", "is", "an", "example"]

These steps for text pre-processing help you to structure your text data in a way that is suitable for further analyses such as sentiment analysis or topic modeling. 

In the following sections of the article, you will learn more about these advanced analyses and see how you can implement them in Python.

  1. Text Sentiment Analysis

Sentiment analysis allows you to determine the emotional tone of a text, whether positive, negative or neutral. 

Sentiment analysis is crucial to understanding the sentiment behind text data. This can be important for companies to evaluate customer feedback or to analyze public opinion on a particular product or service.

Here you can see how you can perform sentiment analysis in Python, in particular using TextBlob:

2.1 Implementation of sentiment analysis with TextBlob

from textblob import TextBlob
text = "Your products are really great!"
blob = TextBlob(text)
sentiment_polarity = blob.sentiment.polarity
sentiment_subjectivity = blob.sentiment.subjectivity
print(f "Sentiment Polarity: {sentiment_polarity}")
print(f "Sentiment Subjectivity: {sentiment_subjectivity}") 

The "polarity" indicates how positive or negative the text is (values between -1 and 1), while the "subjectivity" represents the subjective nature of the text (values between 0 and 1).

Sentiment analysis can help companies monitor customer satisfaction, improve feedback and identify trends in public opinion.

text analysis in python topic modeling
  1. Topic Modeling

Topic modeling allows you to identify hidden topics in a text corpus. This is particularly useful if you have large amounts of text data and want to understand which main themes are present in this data.

3.1 Introduction to topic modeling

Topic modeling is an advanced technique for automatically discovering relevant topics in large amounts of text. 

This helps companies to recognize patterns in customer reviews, employee feedback or other text sources.

3.2 Implementation of topic modeling with Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA)

LDA is a popular algorithm for topic modeling. 

This is what a simple example with the "gensim" library looks like:

from gensim import corpora, models
from nltk.tokenize import word_tokenize
documents = ["Your products are amazing. The quality is outstanding.",
              "Customer service could be improved. Delivery times are too long.",
              "The user interface of your software is user-friendly."]
tokenized_texts = [word_tokenize(doc.lower()) for doc in documents]
dictionary = corpora.Dictionary(tokenized_texts)
corpus = [dictionary.doc2bow(text) for text in tokenized_texts]
lda_model = models.LdaModel(corpus, num_topics=2, id2word=dictionary, passes=15)
topics = lda_model.print_topics(num_words=3)
for topic in topics:
    print(topic)

The number of topics ("num_topics") is adapted to your specific requirements. The three words ("num_words") per topic mentioned above are just one example.

  1. Named Entity Recognition (NER)

Named Entity Recognition (NER) is an advanced text analysis technique that allows you to identify and classify specific entities such as people, places, organizations and more in a text.

4.1 Introduction to Named Entity Recognition

NER is particularly useful if you Extract specific information from your text data such as recognizing key people in customer feedback or identifying important places in travel reviews.

4.2 Implementation of Named Entity Recognition with spaCy

"`python

import spacy

# Example text (replace this with your own text)

text = "Google's headquarters are located in Mountain View, California. Sundar Pichai is the CEO of the company."

import spacy
text = "The headquarters of Google is located in Mountain View, California. Sundar Pichai is the CEO of the company."
nlp = spacy.load('en_core_web_sm')
doc = nlp(text)
# Identifying Named Entities
print("Named Entities:")
for ent in doc.ents:
   print(f "Entity: {ent.text}, Label: {ent.label_}")
# Extracting Specific Entities
locations = [ent.text for ent in doc.ents if ent.label_ == 'GPE']
organizations = [ent.text for ent in doc.ents if ent.label_ == 'ORG']
persons = [ent.text for ent in doc.ents if ent.label_ == 'PERSON']
# Displaying Extracted Entities
print("\nExtracted Entities:")
print("Locations:", locations)
print("Organizations:", organizations)
print("Persons:", persons)

The recognized entities are displayed here with their corresponding labels.

NER is particularly useful for Structured information from unstructured text data to win. 

You can use this information to identify trends, recognize key players and respond to specific requests or concerns.

text analysis in python generation
  1. Text Generation (text creation)

Text generation is an aspect of the natural language processing (NLP), which makes it possible to create machine-generated texts. 

In Python, you can use various techniques for text generation, from simple models to advanced methods such as recurrent neural networks (RNN) or transformer models. 

Here we look at a basic introduction and implementation of text generation in Python.

5.1 Introduction to text generation

Text generation refers to the process by which a computer program is able to autonomously create coherent and meaningful text. 

This is necessary for creative writing projects, automatic writing of articles or even the generation of code.

5.2 Implementing text generation with a simple model

Below you will find a simple example of text generation with a recurrent neural network architecture, implemented with the TensorFlow library:

import tensorflow as tf
from tensorflow.keras.preprocessing.text import Tokenizer
from tensorflow.keras.preprocessing.sequence import pad_sequences
# Sample text (replace this with your own text)
corpus = ["The sun is shining today.",
          "The weather is beautiful.",
          "I am enjoying this day."]
# Tokenization
tokenizer = Tokenizer()
tokenizer.fit_on_texts(corpus)
total_words = len(tokenizer.word_index) + 1
# Creating sequences
input_sequences = []
for line in corpus:
    token_list = tokenizer.texts_to_sequences([line])[0]
    for i in range(1, len(token_list)):
        n_gram_sequence = token_list[:i+1]
        input_sequences.append(n_gram_sequence)
# Padding sequences
max_sequence_length = max([len(x) for x in input_sequences])
input_sequences = pad_sequences(input_sequences, maxlen=max_sequence_length, padding='pre')
# Splitting X and y
X, y = input_sequences[:,:-1], input_sequences[:,-1]
y = tf.keras.utils.to_categorical(y, num_classes=total_words)
# Creating the model
model = tf.keras.Sequential([
    tf.keras.layers.Embedding(total_words, 100, input_length=max_sequence_length-1),
    tf.keras.layers.Bidirectional(tf.keras.layers.LSTM(150)),
    tf.keras.layers.Dense(total_words, activation='softmax')
])
# Compiling the model
model.compile(optimizer='adam', loss='categorical_crossentropy', metrics=['accuracy'])
# Fitting the model
model.fit(X, y, epochs=100, verbose=1)

This example demonstrates a simple approach to text generation. The text can be completed by the model by feeding it with part of the original text as input.

There are more advanced models, such as GPT (Generative Pre-trained Transformer), which have been pre-trained on large amounts of text and are able to generate coherent and context-sensitive texts.

text analysis in python advanced
  1. Advanced Text Analysis (Advanced Text Analysis Concepts)

The advanced text analysis concepts build on the basic techniques and offer advanced possibilities for extracting information from text data. 

Two such concepts are, for example: 

  • Word Embeddings 
  • Deep learning for text analysis

6.1 Word embeddings

Word embeddings are vectorized representations of words that capture semantic similarities between words. 

Instead of looking at individual words in isolation, they are mapped in a multidimensional space, which makes it easier to recognize relationships between words.

In Python, you can create word embeddings with libraries such as Gensim or spaCy. A simple example with Gensim:

from gensim.models import Word2Vec
from nltk.tokenize import word_tokenize
text = "Word embeddings allow understanding semantic relationships between words."
tokens = word_tokenize(text.lower())
model = Word2Vec([tokens], vector_size=50, window=3, min_count=1, workers=4)
vector = model.wv['semantic']
print(f "Vector for 'semantic': {vector}")

6.2 Deep learning for text analysis

Deep learning modelsneural networks, in particular, can recognize complex patterns in text data. 

Models like Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) or Transformer models like BERT have achieved impressive results in tasks such as text classification, named entity recognition and machine translation.

The integration of deep learning into text analysis usually requires the use of frameworks such as TensorFlow or PyTorch. 

This is what a simple example with TensorFlow for text classification looks like:

import tensorflow as tf
import numpy as np
from tensorflow.keras.preprocessing.text import Tokenizer
from tensorflow.keras.preprocessing.sequence import pad_sequences
texts = ["Your products are fantastic.", "Unfortunately, I am unhappy with the service."]
labels = np.array([1, 0])
tokenizer = Tokenizer()
tokenizer.fit_on_texts(texts)
sequences = tokenizer.texts_to_sequences(texts)
padded_sequences = pad_sequences(sequences)
model = tf.keras.Sequential([
    tf.keras.layers.Embedding(input_dim=len(tokenizer.word_index) + 1, output_dim=32),
    tf.keras.layers.LSTM(64),
    tf.keras.layers.Dense(1, activation='sigmoid')
])
model.compile(optimizer='adam', loss='binary_crossentropy', metrics=['accuracy'])
model.fit(padded_sequences, labels, epochs=5)

This example illustrates a simple LSTM model for binary text classification.

The integration of advanced concepts often requires in-depth knowledge of the models and their areas of application. 

You should take care to consider the specific requirements and the size of the available data when selecting and applying these techniques.

In your organization, advanced text analytics concepts could help you gain deeper insights into complex text data and develop more powerful applications. 

Text Analysis in Python - Use Cases

Sentiment analysis for customer reviews

A company wants to better understand customer satisfaction by analyzing customer reviews from different platforms.

Sentiment analysis makes it possible to classify customer comments as positive, negative or neutral. 

By analyzing key phrases, you can identify specific areas that were rated particularly well or poorly. 

This enables targeted measures to improve products or services.

Topic modeling for research articles

A research institution wants to identify the main topics in a large collection of scientific articles.

Topic modeling allows you to extract key topics from extensive text data. 

Researchers can quickly find relevant information, recognize correlations and optimize the direction of research.

Named Entity Recognition (NER) for legal texts

A law firm needs to quickly find relevant information in legal documents.

NER identifies and classifies entities such as laws, persons, companies and places in legal texts. 

This makes it easier to find relevant information, speeds up legal research and supports the preparation of legal cases.

Automated classification of customer inquiries

A customer support team wants to automatically classify incoming emails in order to process them more efficiently.

By using text classification algorithms, the system automatically classifies emails into different categories such as inquiries, complaints or technical problems. 

This ensures a faster response time and more efficient use of resources in the support team.

Text generation for social media marketing

A marketing team wants to automatically create appealing social media posts.

Text generation is used to generate creative and appealing texts for social media posts. 

The model is trained based on previous successful campaigns to ensure a consistent tone and relevant content. This automated text generation saves time and promotes consistent brand communication.

These use cases show how you can apply Text Analysis in Python in different industries and use cases to optimize business processes, support decision making and improve customer service.

Challenges with text analysis in Python

Text analysis comes with various challenges. You can find the 5 most common ones and the best solution here:

  1. Ambiguity and contextual understanding

    Solution: 
    Use advanced language models such as BERT (Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers) that can better understand the context. 
    BERT takes into account the context in which a word appears and provides more accurate results for ambiguous terms.

  2. Data quality and noise

    Solution: 
    Optimize the careful pre-processing of text data, including noise removal, stop word removal and text normalization. 
    This improves the quality of the data and reduces the likelihood of incorrect or misleading analyses.

  3. Adaptation to industry specifics

    Solution: 
    Train models on industry-specific text data to ensure better adaptation to the specific terms, abbreviations and spellings in a given context. 
    This allows you to improve the accuracy of the analysis for the specific requirements of your company or industry.

  4. Lack of labeled data

    Solution: 
    Use transfer learning techniques where models are pre-trained on large general text data sets and then fine-tuned on smaller, industry-specific data sets. 
    This allows you to use knowledge from large amounts of data, even if only limited labeled data is available.

  5. Interpretability of models

    Solution: 
    Interpretable models that can make explainable decisions are recommended here. 
    Techniques such as LIME (Local Interpretable Model-agnostic Explanations) help you to break down the decisions of complex models into individual predictions and thus improve interpretability.

These solutions ensure that you overcome some of the common challenges of text analysis in Python and ensure that the results are accurate, relevant and understandable. 

You should note that the choice of the best solution depends heavily on the specific requirements and the nature of the text data.

green background with Konfuzio logo

Text Analysis in Python with Konfuzio

Do you find it too time-consuming and error-prone to implement text analysis in Python yourself? 

The solution for this is, for example, the application Konfuzio. The Konfuzio is a IDP platformwhich offers everything to do with text analysis and beyond. 

The AI is individually trained for your company and thus ensures that you can use text analysis in Python quickly and effectively with low error tolerance.

Interested? Then test Konfuzio simply free of charge!

Conclusion - Text Analysis in Python as an important, versatile tool

Overall, the exploration of text analysis in Python shows the impressive versatility and power of this technology. 

From basic text pre-processing to advanced concepts such as topic modeling and named entity recognition, Python enables developers to gain deep insights into unstructured text data. 

The Application areas range from improving customer service to the automated categorization of documents.

The integration of Machine Learning- and deep learning techniques makes text analysis in Python even more powerful, allowing complex patterns to be recognized and more precise analyses to be carried out. 

In summary, text analytics in Python enables companies to dive deeper into their text data, make informed decisions and develop innovative solutions to their unique challenges.

You have Questions? Write us a message. Our experts will get back to you as soon as possible.

      Is your company looking for new AI talent?

      First-class AI talent for your company

      Specialized mediation, maximum success without effort: Our partner Opushero helps you find the best talent. A network of specialized consulting agencies that mentor both aspiring youngsters and experienced AI developers. Receive pre-qualified candidate suggestions who want to get started with you.

      About me

      More Articles

      IT-Tage 2020

      From 7 to 10 December 2020, the IT Days will be held as a remote conference for the first time. The conference is aimed at...

      Read article
      fill pdf form

      The best PDF form filler API 2023 introduces itself

      Are you tired of manually filling out forms in PDFs? Do you want to streamline your workflow and increase your productivity? Then you're...

      Read article
      Power Automate Example

      6 Microsoft Power Automate examples

      Microsoft Power Automate is an automation tool that allows users to automate repetitive tasks and make their work more efficient....

      Read article
      Arrow-up